تحلیل جریان های گرانشی رسوبی با نگرشی ویژه بر توربیدایت ها

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه زمین شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان

10.22084/nfag.2020.18569.1363

چکیده

جریان­های گرانشی رسوبی بر اساس ترکیب پنج شاخص غلظت رسوبات، مکانیسم تامین رسوبات، حالت جریان (خطی یا آشفته)، نوع جریان و تغییر شکل آن طبقه­بندی می­شوند. این نوع جریان­ها از سیال­های نیوتونی (نظیر جریان توربیدایتی) و یا از سیال­های غیر نیوتونی (نظیر جریان خرده­دار) تشکیل شده است. با این وجود، شناسایی نوع و تغییر شکل جریان توسط بررسی نهشته­های آن­ها به راحتی امکان­پذیر نیست. اگرچه با قطعیت برخی سنگ­ها جز توربیدایت­ها و برخی دیگر جز دبریت­ها (نهشته­های خرده­دار) طبقه­بندی می­شوند، حالت حد واسطی از این نوع سنگ­ها تحت عنوان دنسیت­ها (نهشته­های جریان متراکم) نیز وجود دارد. دنسیت­ها ویژگی­های دوگانه توربیدایت­ها و دبریت­ها را از خود نشان می­دهند. دنسیت­ها دارای حالت ترکیبی سیال­های نیوتونی و غیرنیوتونی هستند. واژه گراویت برای تمام نهشته­های گرانشی رسوبی بدون در نظر گرفتن محیط رسوبی­شان به کار برده می­شود. امروزه، جریان­های توربیدایتی برای جریان­های گرانشی رسوبی نیوتونی به کار گرفته می­شود. این نوع جریان­های نیوتونی برخلاف سایر جریان­ها به علت سقوط و رسوب متفاوت ذرات از بخش تحتانی تا بخش فوقانی رسوبات دارای دانه­بندی تدریجی می­باشند (نظیر توالی بوما). سیستم­های توربیدایتی بر مبنای اندازه ذرات (غنی از گل، غنی از گل/ماسه، غنی از ماسه و غنی از گراول)، ترکیب رسوب (توربیدایت آهکی و توربیدایت آواری) و سیستم تغذیه­کننده (مخروط زیر­دریایی با منشا نقطه­ای، رمپ با منشا چند­گانه و پیشانی شیب با منشا خطی) طبقه­بندی می­شوند. سیستم­های توربیدایتی غنی از گل دانه­ریز عمدتا در حوضه­های با ورودی رودخانه­ای بزرگ ایجاد می­شوند. می­توان از نهشته­های توربیدایتی آهکی در ایران از سازند­های پابده و سروک (حوضه زاگرس) و  توربیدایت­های آواری از بخش آواری سازند امیران و نهشته­های آواری میوسن نام برد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of sediment gravity flows with special view on turbidites

نویسنده [English]

  • R. Behbahani
چکیده [English]

Sediment gravity flows are categorized based on combination of five parameters: sediment concentration, sediment-support mechanism, flow state (laminar or turbulent) and rheology (flow type and its deformation). Except for rheology, all of these parameters change gradationally from one member to another. Therefore, rheological classification of sediment gravity flows should be the most straightforward and the least controversial. These flows can be either Newtonian (i.e., turbidity currents), or non-Newtonian (i.e., debris flows). However, identification of flow rheology by examining the deposits may not be easy. Although we may confidently identify some rocks as turbidites and others as debrites, there are some transitional deposits, here called densites. Densites share both the characteristics of turbidites and debrites. Densites are the deposits of dense flows, which are rheologically stratified flows having a composite rheology of Newtonian fluids and non-Newtonian fluids. The term gravite is proposed for deposits of any kind of sediment gravity flow, irrespective of their depositional environment. Nowadays, turbidity currents only for sediment gravity flows with Newtonian rheology. These types of currents with Newtonian rheology, unlike other currents, should produce a diagnostic distribution grading (due to differential grain settling) from the bottom to the top of the deposits (i.e., Bouma sequence). Turbidite systems are classified based on grain size (mud-rich, mud/sand-rich, sand-rich and gravel-rich), sediment composition (calciturbidite and siliciclastic turbidite) and feeder system) submarine fan with point source, ramp with multiple source and slope apron with linear source).  Fine-grained, mud-rich turbidite systems mainly occur in basins with a large fluvial input. The calciturbidites and siliciclastic turbidites in Iran can be named Pabdeh and Sarvak Formations (Zagros Basin), terrigenous part of Amiran Formation and Miocene siliciclastic deposits, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sediment gravity flows
  • Turbidite
  • Densite
  • Debrite
  • Gravite
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